How we define hate speech
Definition of Hate Speech Following Röttger et al. (2021b): we define hate speech as abuse that is targeted at a protected group or at its members for being a part of that group. Protected groups are groups based on age, disability, gender identity, race, national or ethnic origins, religion, sex or sexual orientation, which broadly reflects Western legal consensus, particularly the US 1964 Civil Rights Act, the UK’s 2010 Equality Act and the EU’s Charter of Fundamental Rights. Based on these definitions, we approach hate speech detection as the non-binary classification of content as either hateful or non-hateful. Our research is multi-lingual.